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Will Lead-acid Batteries Be Eliminated?

Dec 25, 2018

The lead-acid battery has a strong vitality, and there can be a new introduction to the academician Yang. The lead-acid battery has experienced 150 years without fading. In the decades when new batteries such as nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and lithium-ion batteries have been listed, Still able to firmly occupy most of the market share; China's electric bicycles have an annual output of nearly 20 million vehicles, most of which are equipped with lead-acid batteries; all kinds of diesel locomotives all over the world use a lead-acid battery, which is by no means accidental. In addition to its traditional advantages such as mature technology, low price and low security, it is closely related to the development of many new technologies in the competition in recent years, such as three-dimensional and double three-dimensional structural electrodes and fully sealed and tubular, New structures such as horizontal; using new lead alloy electrodes, the specific energy can be gradually increased, and the cycle life can be as long as 4,500 times (70% DOD). Lead acid "super battery" is also one of the latest technologies. Therefore, lead-acid batteries are not outdated, and lead-acid batteries have new technologies. What is a lead acid "super battery"? The so-called lead-acid "super battery", UltraBattery, is the use of super capacitors and lead-acid batteries in parallel (can be called "outside"), evolved into "lead-acid battery with a carbon supercapacitor combination", that is The advantages of high specific power and long life of electric double layer capacitors are integrated into lead-acid batteries, which can simplify the circuit, increase the specific energy, and reduce the total cost while maintaining the advantages of “external” power increase and battery life. It will generate huge economic and social benefits in the electric bicycles that are already developing in China and the electric vehicles that are being started. There are two key technologies for lead-acid "super battery". One is high-performance capacitor carbon material suitable for sulfuric acid electrolyte, and the other is composite of capacitor carbon and lead anode. After integrating various new technologies, the specific energy of lead-acid batteries can be increased to 60-80 wh/kg, and the power can be increased to 600-700 w, which is close to the technical specifications of lithium batteries. The 863 Program should support the development of technology for lead-acid batteries. US President Barack Obama announced that it will allocate $2.4 billion to support the development of "next-generation batteries and electric vehicles" in 48 projects in the United States, including lead-acid batteries, which are arranged for $34.3 million. And $32.5 million to support the two companies to develop lead-acid "super battery" projects. What is remarkable is that the plan does not mention hydrogen batteries and fuel cells. Academician Yang Yusheng called on this "foreign monk to chanting", which can touch China's "Buddha" and no longer prejudice the lead-acid battery. It should support a lead-acid battery in a down-to-earth manner. Academician Yang suggested that the China 863 Program should clearly support the lead-acid "super battery" and should not hesitate. To this end, he suggested that the government should provide 45 million yuan (equivalent to 1/10 of the US), support 2, 3 production-research portfolios, plus the company's 1:1 matching funds, and develop lead acid in two years. "Super battery" and its capacitor carbon, and form a certain scale of production capacity. This is also one of the best measures to deal with the financial crisis and stimulate domestic demand. Lithium battery is the future development direction, but the technology still needs to be improved. Yang Academician believes that lithium battery is a good development direction, but at present it is necessary to solve the problem of safety and pass rate. The safety of lithium batteries has always been a concern for everyone. In 2009, mobile phone lithium batteries exploded 7 times in China, killing 3 people. Technically speaking, mobile phone lithium batteries are relatively simple, and there is no problem of series connection and parallel connection. It is understood that the energy of mobile phone lithium battery is probably 2wh, according to international statistics, the probability of explosion is one in ten million, and the energy of a bus lithium battery is about 200,000 wh, if by watt hour and mobile phone Compared with lithium batteries, the probability of explosion may be one percent, which is a problem that cannot be ignored. The lithium battery industry must truly solve the battery safety problem, otherwise the consequences will be unimaginable in the future. In the end, it is important to look good, or it is important for safety. People in the industry should pay attention to it. The second is the issue of the pass rate of lithium batteries. In addition to the technology of high-capacity lithium-ion power batteries to be improved, we must further improve the authenticity rate. The most energy-saving and emission-reducing of pure electric vehicles The bottleneck of developing electric vehicles is the concept, not the simple technology. Among all kinds of electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles have the greatest advantages: First, no oil, 1 million pure electric cars can replace 10,000 tons of gasoline per day; second, no pollution; third is full cost (car price + energy price) It may be lower than the fuel car; the fourth is simple structure, no oil and water, easy to use and maintain; fifth, the battery can be charged at night with cheap "gudian" and ready-made grid lines, which not only sells "valley" (mainly nuclear power and wind power), for the "distributed peaking" of the power grid, but also can save a lot of funds for the construction of energy storage power stations. China should leapfrog and prioritize the development of a pure electric vehicle that can travel about 150-200 kilometers on a single charge. In addition, various power batteries used in electric vehicles have room for development, and various batteries must be "everything can be achieved and fair competition". Lead-acid batteries have advantages in the competition of new energy scale energy storage. When talking about China's new energy development, Academician Yang pointed out that lead-acid batteries have an advantage in the competition in the field of large-scale energy storage. In the field of new energy storage batteries, the industry has completed the test of lead-acid batteries for long-cycle life power storage systems. The system is connected to the total power supply system for peak shaving operation. In the tested power storage system, the maximum power of the three units was 100kW, 100kW, and 400kW, respectively. After two and a half years of continuous operation, there was no problem such as a drop in battery voltage and an increase in voltage difference. The system operated well. The practicality of the lead-acid battery power storage system was confirmed. At the same time, the development of new energy storage batteries must consider cost and longevity, lead-acid batteries have stable performance and low prices. The Research Center for Military Chemical Power Research and Development of China Institute of Chemical Research has studied military batteries for ten years. It has accumulated experience in battery demand demonstration, overall research, and technology development. It pays special attention to the development of large-scale energy storage battery technology, especially recommending lead-acid batteries. Application in this field. The lead-acid battery industry should pay attention to the prevention and control of lead pollution. When people talk about lead-acid batteries, it is often said that lead has a problem of polluting the environment. In fact, lead-acid batteries are the most recyclable of all batteries, and the production process of large companies has strict control over lead. It is necessary to solve the lead and acid pollution in lead mining and smelting neutralization and waste battery recycling; as long as the environmental protection department is seriously responsible, the company attaches great importance to the implementation of environmental protection measures, and the problem is not difficult to solve. At present, the lead battery industry must strive to achieve full-close operation from lead mining, battery production, and recycling of used batteries, thus minimizing lead pollution. Why is nuclear power not worried about environmental pollution? Because the raw material uranium of nuclear power is from mining to recycling, the environmental protection of the whole process is doing very well. The lead-acid battery industry chain can learn from the experience of nuclear power production. In addition, the lead amount in the new lead-acid "super battery" is much smaller than the existing lead-acid battery, and the service life is extended to reduce the workload of regeneration, which directly contributes to the reduction of lead pollution. The production equipment of lead-acid batteries should be localized. Finally, Academician Yang talked about the localization of equipment for lead-acid batteries. He said that many new lead-acid batteries (such as tubular batteries) and old battery recycling businesses still use imported equipment. Imported equipment is expensive and hinders large-scale promotion and application. After importing production equipment, Chinese battery companies must consider realizing the localization of equipment as soon as possible. The localization of imported equipment is a good business opportunity and an opportunity to promote technological advancement in China's battery industry. After the price of the equipment has dropped, companies can use advanced equipment that does not produce pollution. It is hoped that people in the lead-acid battery industry in China will work together to promote the localization of equipment as early as possible in the process from mining to recycling of old batteries.

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